Kibera, le plus grand bidonville d'Afrique (Nairobi, Kenya) - Kibera, the largest slum in Africa (Nairobi, Kenya)

en français: Le problème de l'accès à l'eau et de l'absence d'assainissement (Source: PNUD)


in english:


The problem of access to water (Source: Pulitzer Center)


The Women of Kibera/Les femmes de Kibera (Source: Amnesty International)


Urban Riots and violence in Nairobi slums after the suspicious vote for new president on december 27th 2007 (Source NTV Kenya)



Source: IRIN (Integrated Regional Information Networks) project of the United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA)
A documentary film about the slum of Kibera in five parts:

Worldwide, more than a billion people live in slums, with as many as one million in Kibera, Africa’s largest such settlement, in the Kenyan capital Nairobi. Slum Survivors, IRIN’s first full-length documentary, tells some of their stories.

Part one: Meet Carol

Meet Carol, a single mother of three, who walks miles each day in search of work washing other people’s clothes. It is a hand-to-mouth existence - sometimes she gets work and buys food, but most of the time she and her children go to bed hungry.

Carol’s situation is so desperate that on more than one occasion she has come close to suicide. With no-one to rely on for support, she’s left hoping for miracles.

“We hope that one day God will come down – we keep on saying that. One day God will come down and change our situations.”


Part two: Dennis’ story

Dennis Onyango fell into poverty when his father left his mother for another woman. Forced out of school because of unpaid fees, he ended up in Mombasa where he found work as a DJ.

Life was good until inter-ethnic fighting forced Dennis back to the safety of Nairobi. But poverty and desperation pushed him into a life of crime.

“Many of my friends had guns. I had grown up in the hands of the police because my father was a policeman. He used to leave his gun on the table so I knew how to dismantle and reassemble guns, so my friends used to bring their guns to me for cleaning - that’s how I got started.”

But these days, Dennis is trying to change. He wants to turn his back on crime and start afresh.






Part 3: Patrick’s struggle

Patrick Mburu says he has lost many friends to crime and believes hard work is the only way out of poverty for him and his young family. His parents were both alcoholics and so he has had to fend for himself from a young age.

Patrick empties latrines for a living. Most toilets in Kibera are privately owned and residents must pay to use them. There are so few toilets that on average each one is shared by more than a thousand people.

Most slum dwellers never finish school and end up trapped in poverty, which is why Patrick is adamant his kids will get an education.

“In Kenya, no education means you can’t get a good job; that’s why I send my son to a good school, because I want him to know that the job that I do is only for people like me who didn’t go to school.

“So, I will struggle - I will carry a lot of shit, I will do anything but steal to keep him in school.”



Part 4: Abdul’s school

Abdul Kassim also believes in the importance of education. He works as a telecoms engineer, but puts most of his income into a free secondary school for girls, which he started in January 2006.

“I saw that there was no gender equity between the boy child and the girl child here in Kibera, and so we started a girl’s soccer team. Then all the challenges, all the bad things that happen within Kibera saw some of them getting into early marriages, some of them got pregnant - there was a time when I lost the entire striking force of my team and it brought into question the starting of another alternative, which was nothing but education.”

Christina, 17, is just one of 48 pupils at Abdul’s school but her story is typical. She lives with her mother, father and five siblings in a one-room shack. Her parents’ relationship is fraught and Christina is often left alone in charge of the house.

When she finished primary school, her father refused to send her to secondary school, claiming that educating girls was a waste of money.

“My dad wants everyone to drop out of school. He complains that he has no money, or that he’s sick … I don’t know … I don’t know why he doesn’t want us to learn.”

Christina has a hole in her heart - a serious condition for which she should take daily medication but the cost - US$10 a day - is far beyond her family’s means. School, a job and then a salary might just save her life.

For Abdul, education is the key to solving the problems of the urban poor and that is why he started the school. He has lived here all his life and has seen Kibera change beyond recognition as more and more people flood into the city in search of a better life.

“I don’t see why people are living the way they are living in Kibera, or in any other slums, there is no reason - there is no justification.

“And in Kibera if this issue is not handled at some time this problem is going to come knocking at people’s doors - and those who think it’s not their problem might be surprised one day when this problem comes knocking at their door.”


Documents cartographiques:

Les bidonvilles de Nairobi (il y en a environ 150) regroupent plus de 60 % de la population de l'agglomération...





CHIFFRES CLÉS : CE QU'IL FAUT SAVOIR SUR KIBERA

- Kibera est l’un des plus grand bidonvilles d’Afrique avec une population estimée de 700.000 à 1 million d’habitants.

- La superficie est de 250 hectares, avec une densité de 2000 personnes par hectare. Ce qui signifie qu’une moyenne de 1500 personnes vivent sur l’équivalent d’un terrain de football.

- La moitié des habitants a moins de 15 ans.

- Plus de 15% de la population est atteinte du SIDA. (MSF)

- Kibera est composé de 12 villages, chacun variant en population et en taille, topographie, culture, ethnies, et religion.

- 80% des jeunes sont au chômage.



Kibera située sur des terres gouvernementales, elle est devenue « terrain illégal » et ne rentre pas dans le budget de Nairobi pour les services publics. Kibera se trouve à 7km du Central Business de Nairobi et se compose de 12 villages, tous différents en terme de population, de taille, topographie, culture, ethnies, et religions.

Le bidonville est partout tiraillé par les mêmes problèmes sanitaires, économiques et environnementaux. Les maisons sont construites là où il reste de la place, aléatoirement, sans suite ni disposition logique entre elles. Les rares bénéficiaires d’une adresse postale sont les organisations et autres associations, adresses qui sont évidemment enregistrées au nom de Nairobi, bénéficiant d’un code postal spécifique. Les adresses physiques, elles, n’existent pas.

Les maisons se résument généralement à une simple chambre. Les murs sont faits de boue, souvent sans plâtre, les toits sont en fer. La plupart des « planchers » sont à même la terre, engendrant des problèmes évidents d’insalubrité. Outre les maisons, les rues sont également un problème conséquent pour les habitants de Kibera de part leur étroitesse et leur forme. Pierres, trous, ordures et autres débris jonchent des rues étroites de surcroît, les rendant totalement impraticables par les véhicules. Les conséquences peuvent être dramatiques, notamment lorsqu’un habitant doit être transporté d’urgence à l’hôpital. Idem lorsqu’un incendie se propage, il est toujours difficile pour les équipes d’interventions d’arriver sur les lieux. Les canaux d’irrigation ouverts, tranchées creusées dans la terre le long de chaque rue, sont propres à Kibera. Les ordures et les eaux usées se retrouvent dans ces tranchées, creusés aux pieds des maisons, et les détritus s’accumulent parfois au point de bloquer l’irrigation. Ces canaux, en plus de l’odeur pestilentielle qu’ils dégagent, sont porteurs de nombreuses bactéries dangereuses pour les habitants.
Derrière ces problèmes d’irrigation, Kibera souffre également d’un manque d’accès à l’eau courante, aux installations sanitaires, à l’éducation, à la santé, et à l’électricité. Par-dessus tout, les habitants sont atteints psychologiquement du fait que les structures ont été construites temporairement.

Reste le problème du SIDA qui touche Kibera au même titre que l’Afrique. Selon MSF, au moins 15% des habitants seraient infectés. Ce taux pourrait être bien plus important du fait que les nourrissons ne subissent pas de test. Les victimes principales sont les jeunes, ainsi que les parents et leurs enfants.
Les familles souffrent de ce fléau plus qu’ailleurs du fait que les enfants assistent impuissants à la longue et lente détérioration de leurs parents. Enfants qui, pour certains, sont eux-même contaminé et qui ne recoivent aucun soin.

Les premières fondations de Kibera remontent à 1912 lorsque le gouvernement colonial britannique installa les soldats nubiens (ou soudanais) qui avaient fait parti des « Kings African Rifles ».
Le terrain sera appelé plus tard Kibera, ce qui signifie « Forêt » en langue nubienne.

Le gouvernement britannique fit alors de Kibera une réserve militaire et l’établit officiellement comme terre de résidence pour les soldats nubiens et leur famille à partir de 1918. A cette époque Kibera était alors un endroit boisé de 4000 hectares, qui comptait à peine 600 âmes.
En 1928 l’armée britannique décida de transférer l’administration de Kibera au Conseil Municipal. Les droits de propriété existants furent retirés aux habitants, et on leur demanda de fournir des preuves selon un procédé long et fastidieux, afin de prouver leur origine nubienne. Les nubiens furent déclarés Tenants of the Crown (ou Propriétaires de la Couronne), signifiant que le gouvernement pouvait à tout moment terminer leur statut de propriétaire. Toute structure bâtie dans Kibera risquait à tout moment d’être détruite au cas où l’état déciderait de construire un projet gouvernemental au même endroit.

Les problèmes de santé à Kibera devinrent si rapidement importants que dès 1948 il y eut une première demande de délocalisation générale. Malgré cela la cité continua à s’agrandir, passant de 6.000 habitants en 1965 à 62.000 en 1980, puis 248.360 en 1992 et enfin 500.000 en 1998. Avec un taux de croissance annuelle de 17% le nombre actuel d’habitants varierait en 2006 entre 700.000 et 1.000.000, et ce pour une densité de plus de 2000 personnes par hectare. Avec une densité de 3,2 à 4,6 personnes par chambre, Kibera est aujourd’hui considéré comme le plus grand bidonville d’Afrique (en gros la densité de Kibera est de 200.000 personnes au km carré.

Kibera ne cesse de croître, tout simplement parce que la population rurale des alentours ne cesse de migrer vers les villes. D’une part en raison du déclin de l’activité agricole, d’autre part en raison de l’idée préconçue qu’ont les paysans de la vie urbaine. En effet, dans les campagnes bordant la capitale kenyane, les gens pensent que l’émigration vers Nairobi est la meilleure échappatoire à la misère et à la pauvreté du monde agricole. Malheureusement, les loyers et le style de vie de Nairobi aux coûts astronomiques les ramènent vite à la réalité, les obligeant inévitablement à venir s’installer à Kibera.

Kibera in brief:

KEY FIGURES : What you should know about Kibera

- Kibera is one of the largest slums in Africa with an estimated population of 700.000 to more than 1 million.

- Physical area is around 250 hectares, densely populated with over 2,000 people per hectare.
This means that an average of 1500 people live on the equivalent of a football pitch.

- Half of the Kiberians are under the age of 15.

- More than 15% of Kibera's population is either HIV positive or has AIDS. (MSF)

- Kibera is composed of 12 main villages each varying in population and size, topography, culture, ethnicity and religious makeup.

- 80% of youths in Kibera are unemployed.



Issues and problems in the Kibera Slum

Kibera is located on government land. It is known as ”illegal settlement” and not included in the city plans and budgets for the public services. The settlement is 7 km from the Central business district and is composed of 12 Villages, each varying in population and size, topography, culture, ethnicity and religious make up.

This densely populated settlement is plagued by the same social health, economic and environmental problems as the slums. Structures in Kibera are built randomly with little space available. Few trees and plants can be seen in Kibera. People do not have physical addresses and very few have post box number.

The housing units comprise one small room, mud-walled, with an iron roof. Most of these houses have earth floor and un-plastered walls. Roads are a big problem to the residents especially when there is a sick person that should be taken hospital because roads are too narrow for cars to pass through. When the fire breaks out in the slum, it is always difficult for the fire fighters to find their way to the scene. Open canals and trenches characterise Kibera's drainage system. Garbage and used water follow the same channel and once the garbage accumulates, the canals get blocked. Since Kibera is a squalid residential area, this kind of system is usually only a few yards away from the houses. This stagnant, smelly water and sludge that surrounds most houses breeds to mosquitoes, which lead to many diseases. In addition to lacking a drainage system, Kibera's residents still suffer from poor access to clean water, sanitation, education, health care and electricity. Above all, the residents suffer psychologically from the fact that the structures are temporary.

Finally, people infected by HIV are a growing problem. According to MSF, at least 15% of the Kibera inhabitants are infected but the rate could be much higher because some parts of the population, such as children up to 1 year, are not tested. Most infected people are youths, parents, and obviously young children.
Families suffer from it a lot because the children often contribute to the slow, long deterioration of their parents, without been able to do anything. They can also been infected themselves, and like their parents they don’t receive any treatment.



KIBERA: The History of the Nairobi Slum

The Kibera settlement started way back in 1912 when the British colonial government settled Nubian (Sudanese) soldiers who had been part of the King's African Rifles on an area of land that came to be known as Kibera, which means forest in a Nubian language.

The British Government surveyed Kibera as a military reserve and formerly established it as a resettlement for the Nubian soldiers and their families in 1918. By then Kibera was a bushy place of 4,000 hectares with only 600 Nubians living there.

In 1928 the British Army transferred the administration of Kibera to the Municipal Council. All existing permits were cancelled and inhabitants of Kibera were required to go through a process in which they had to prove their Nubian history.
The Nubians were declared "Tenants of the Crown", meaning the commissioner of Lands could terminate their tenancy at any time, in other words all structures built in Kibera had to be temporary because the Government still retained the right to demolish any structure and use the land for any governmental project.

In 1948 there was the first demand to remove Kibera because of health problems in the area. Despite its bad environment and health conditions, Kibera continued growing and during the 1970s it started booming with a population increasing from estimated 6,000 inhabitants in 1965 to 62.000 in 1980, 248.360 in 1992, and 500.000 in 1998, with an estimated growth ratio of 17% per year. The density leads to the current estimate of 700.000 to 1.000.000 people, with a density of over 2,000 per hectare, and an average of 3.2 to 4.6 people per room, which makes ofKibera the largest slum in Africa.
The density in Kibera reaches 200.000 people per square meter.

The rural to urban migration quickened the rapid growth of Kibera’s population. This is because people from rural areas have perception that Nairobi being the capital city, has more job opportunities. Furthermore, overall decline in agricultural productivity combined with a growing population.

Bibliography/Bibliographie:

The Challenge of Slums: Global Report on Human Settlements 2003

Ce rapport de l'agence UN-Habitat réalisé en 2003 est sans doute l'un des documents les plus complets sur la question des bidonvilles et de l'habitat informal dans les grandes métropoloes mondiales...

Vues : 3054

Commenter

Vous devez être membre du groupe « L'Ecole Hors les Murs - School Beyond The Walls » avant de pouvoir ajouter des commentaires!

Rejoindre L'Ecole Hors les Murs - School Beyond The Walls

Commentaire de Vincent Mespoulet le 29 mars 2009 à 11:09
Oui, c'est un beau concours, dis moi si tu as besoin d'aide pour le contenu scientifique, car je ne peux pas faire participer mes élèves, ils sont trop petits. On pourrait justement tester de créer un groupe de travail avec tes élèves de 16/18 ans pour établir thème, storyboard, idées... Qu'en penses-tu ?
Commentaire de Grazina Likpetriene le 29 mars 2009 à 10:22
Je suis choquée! Merci Vincent je crois que cette information excitera à participer des élèves dans le concours «Jeunesse et Développement » 2008/2009

Supporters

Be Creative ! Make your Difference !

Activité la plus récente

Michel Truffer a partagé son billet sur Facebook
22 sept.
Sami Jarkas a commenté l'album de Sami Jarkas
11 mars
Album publié par Sami Jarkas
11 mars
Sami Jarkas a partagé son billet sur Facebook
11 mars
Sami Jarkas a partagé sa discussion sur Facebook
11 mars
Sami Jarkas a partagé sa photo sur Facebook
10 mars
Sami Jarkas a partagé sa discussion sur Facebook
10 mars
Sami Jarkas et G. Mat sont désormais ami(e)s
10 mars
Peyrard est désormais membre de L'Ecole Hors les Murs - School Beyond The Walls
4 déc. 2017
anterrieu est désormais membre de L'Ecole Hors les Murs - School Beyond The Walls
12 nov. 2017

Badge

Chargement en cours…

© 2018   Créé par Vincent Mespoulet.   Sponsorisé par

Badges  |  Signaler un problème  |  Conditions d'utilisation